The fact that there is a diagnosis of hypertension is thought only when there is a persistent rise in blood pressure on the face or frequent jumps occur. At the same time, different stages of hypertension manifest themselves with different strengths. In the early stages of the disease, people are usually unaware of the development of problems. Sometimes even a slight rise in temperature receives more attention than a violation of the condition when arterial hypertension develops. Types of pathology differ in the strength of the manifestation of symptoms and the presence of concomitant ailments in the body. Indeed, even in the absence of obvious signs, hypertension is no less dangerous than when it is integrated with various ailments of the body. Signs of hypertension include: tremor of the limbs, nausea, headache, flies in front of the eyes. All symptoms develop due to problems with blood flow to internal organs.
Stages of hypertension
The hypertension clinic, based on the effect on the whole body and the strength of the accompanying symptoms, is classified into stage and severity. There are 3 stages. The division into stages helps the doctor to systematize the obtained diagnostic data and choose the right tactics to correct the patient's condition.
The level of blood pressure at the 1st stage of hypertension does not exceed 159/99. This increase can persist for several days. Rest will help normalize blood pressure, relieve stress. With the further progression of the pathology, it will not be so easy to restore the pressure norm.
At this stage in the development of the disease, there are no signs that it has an effect on target organs. For this reason, high blood pressure is often asymptomatic. Only sometimes sleep is disturbed, implicit pains in the head and heart can develop.
When carrying out clinical diagnostics, a slight increase in the tone of the fundus arteries can be established. In the first stage of the disease, the risk of a hypertensive crisis is minimal, often this situation occurs only due to the impact of external circumstances on the body. The risk also increases in women during menopause. The initial stage responds well to treatment. For this, a change in lifestyle is usually sufficient. Medicines are not always necessary. With timely therapy and strict adherence to the doctor's instructions, the prognosis will be favorable.
This is the stage of active pathological changes in the vessels - severe hypertension. The pressure at the 2nd stage reaches 179/109. Rest does not restore its level. A person complains of excruciating headaches, shortness of breath during exertion, worsening of sleep, dizziness, and increased heart rate.
This stage is characterized by the development of the first signs from the internal organs. The most common symptoms of severe hypertension are:
- signs of left ventricular hypertrophy;
- narrowing of the lumen of the arteries of the retina;
- increased blood cholesterol;
- the presence of protein in the urine.
Stage 2 hypertension significantly increases the risk of life-threatening complications that can lead to a stroke. Without constant medical treatment, it won't work.
This is the stage of target organ disorders due to pathological changes in the arteries and impaired blood flow throughout the body. Very severe hypertension in the 3rd stage. The last stage of hypertension is the most severe, extensive disorders develop in the body, affecting the target organs. The eyes, kidneys, brain and heart are the most affected. The pressure at the 3rd stage is stable, it is difficult to normalize even with drug treatment. Often there are jumps up to 180/110 mm Hg. Art. and even more. The symptomatology is similar to that which occurs at the 2nd stage, but in addition it is accompanied by pathological manifestations of the affected organs. Memory often deteriorates, heart rate is noticeably disturbed, visual acuity decreases.
This phase is dangerous because it always affects the heart. Its contractility and impulse conduction in the myocardium are disturbed.
With an increase in blood pressure and the absence of the effect of the measures taken, it can be assumed that the disease is progressing. The optimal blood pressure level is 120/80. The norm for systolic blood pressure ranges from 120 to 129 and diastolic from 80 to 84. There is also normal high blood pressure when a person is feeling well - up to 139/89 mm Hg. Art. In medicine, hypertension is classified into 3 degrees.
1st degree arterial hypertension is mild, it is characterized by pressure drops and fluctuations from 140/90 to 159/99 The risk of a crisis in such a situation is minimized, there are no symptoms of dysfunction of other organs and nervous system. To suppress an attack, in addition to taking special pills, you need to relax a little, try to avoid stress, walks and positive emotions have a beneficial effect on health.
If the systolic pressure does not go beyond 159, and the diastolic - 99 mm Hg. Art. , Then the person is diagnosed with mild hypertension - the first degree. It is characterized by such signs:
- headaches that get worse with exertion;
- stabbing and painful sensation left in the chest, radiating to the shoulder blade and under the arm;
- dizziness so intense that it can lead to fainting;
- acceleration of the heartbeat;
- black flies;
- sleep disorders.
A person ceases to notice the listed symptoms if they constantly develop. An attack of hypertension can begin under the influence of stress and, with proper assistance, pass without consequences.
2nd degree hypertension begins to develop more actively. The pressure level is already reaching 160/100 - 179/109. Signs of a hypertensive crisis develop: cold sweat appears, goosebumps appear on the skin, the skin of the face turns red.
Symptoms of the 2nd degree of the disease include:
- transient cerebral ischemia - deterioration of blood flow to the organ;
- an increase in the concentration of creatinine in the blood;
- narrowing of the arteries in the retina;
- an increase in the size of the left ventricle;
- protein in the urine, which is found during the delivery of tests;
- persistent fatigue;
- throbbing in the head;
- swelling of the face;
- heavy sweating;
- damage to internal organs;
- numbness of the fingers;
- blurred vision;
Medicines do not cope well with the normalization of the patient's condition. Doctors pay attention not only to the level of pressure, but also to the rate of development of the disease. Second-degree hypertension affects the kidneys. The patient almost always complains of a malaise.
The 3rd degree of hypertension is the most severe. When it occurs, vision drops sharply, memory worsens, tachycardia often occurs, and the risk of a hypertensive crisis is high. Complications of this condition include thrombosis, encephalopathy, aneurysm, kidney failure and left ventricle of the heart, bruising throughout the body, and swelling of the optic nerve. The pathology is irreversible. With 3rd degree hypertension, the patient necessarily needs help and external care. The main signs of hypertension are:
- gait instability;
- significant visual impairment;
- violation of blood flow in the brain, causing paresis and paralysis;
- crisis, accompanied by confusion and speech disorders;
- sharp pain in the heart;
- expectoration of blood;
- limited mobility and self-service capacity;
- inability to communicate properly.
These symptoms indicate the progression of hypertension and the involvement of new organs in the disease. Gradually, more irreversible complications develop.
Classification by risk factors
Hypertension, first of all, is dangerous due to its many and often irreversible complications. Most patients become disabled or die not specifically from high blood pressure, but from acute disorders in other organs it causes.
The most dangerous conditions are ischemic necrosis, cerebral hemorrhage, heart attack, renal failure. To prevent various complications associated with the dysfunction of other organs, the doctor determines the degree of risk during the examination. The risk levels are indicated by numbers from 1 to 4. It turns out that the diagnosis contains information on the degree and risk of damage, for example, GB grade 2, risk 4.
Low risk (negligible)
This risk indicator for the development of complications of hypertension is seen in women under 65 years of age and in men under 55 with mild stage 1 hypertension. Over the next 10 years, only 15% of people develop further disorders. cardiac and vascular due to hypertension. These patients are usually seen by general practitioners, as there is no point in visiting a cardiologist and carrying out serious treatment.
When minor risks still persist, a person needs to make lifestyle changes in the next 6 months. This will lead to positive developments. If there are no results and it is not possible to achieve a decrease in blood pressure, it is recommended to change the patient management tactics and implement drug therapy.
This group of patients includes hypertensive patients, whose blood pressure indicators are not higher than 179/110. Typically, these people have 1 - 2 risk factors of the following:
- to smoke;
- high concentration of cholesterol;
- lack of physical activity;
- impaired glucose tolerance.
In the next 10 years, dangerous cardiovascular diseases develop in 20% of cases. Organizing a healthy lifestyle is an integral part of maintaining health. Within 3-6 months, medications may not be prescribed so that the patient can restore as much health as possible through lifestyle changes.
This risk group includes patients with indicators of 179/110 or more in the presence of more than 2 predisposing factors. Additionally, a high risk is set for people with target organ damage, diabetes mellitus, retinal vascular disorders, and atherosclerosis.
There may not be any risk factors, but people with stage 3 hypertension are still at high risk. They need to be treated by a cardiologist. The risk of complications is 30%. Lifestyle normalization is used only as an additional tactic against the background of taking specially selected drugs. The choice of the most effective drugs should be made as soon as possible.
The main goals of the treatment of hypertension are the reduction of pressure and the prevention of consequences. Full recovery is impossible, but staging and adequate treatment help stop the active progression of the disease and minimize the risk of a hypertensive crisis.
Drug therapy usually involves the use of antihypertensive drugs that inhibit norepinephrine production and its vasomotor activity. At the same time, the appointment of diuretics, antiplatelet agents, hypoglycemic, lipid-lowering and sedative drugs is required. In the absence of the expected result, a combined effect of several antihypertensive drugs is performed simultaneously.
In a hypertensive crisis, it is necessary to reduce the pressure within an hour after the attack, otherwise the risks of dangerous complications and death increase. In such a situation, antihypertensive drugs are used by injection or drip.
Regardless of the degree and stage of the body's dysfunction, an important method of therapy is the normalization of nutrition, the observance of a special diet. The diet necessarily includes foods enriched with magnesium, potassium, vitamins. It is necessary to limit the use of salt, give up alcohol, fried and fatty foods. With obesity, the daily calorie content of the diet decreases, sugar, pastries and other confectionery products are prohibited.
People with hypertension benefit from moderate physical activity: physical therapy, swimming, walking. Therapeutic massage also has a good effect on well-being with hypertension. Smoking is strictly prohibited, you should develop resistance to stress with the help of psychotherapeutic practices and relaxation techniques.
The effectiveness of complex therapy is evaluated according to several criteria:
- The short-term goals are the normalization of pressure to a level where the patient feels good.
- The medium-term objectives are to prevent the onset and active development of pathologies in target organs.
- The long-term goals are to prevent complications and extend the patient's life.
Hypertension is a much easier disease to prevent than to fight for a lifetime, trying to relieve symptoms and prevent systematic worsening of the condition. The earlier the diagnosis is made and the stage of hypertension determined, the more effective the treatment will be.